There are a number of reference models used in business architecture.
The Association for Cooperation Operations Research and Development, or ACORD, is a not-for-profit organization with participation by the insurance industry. Its objective is to provide frameworks that improve the use of data.
Control Objectives for IT, or COBIT, is published by the IT Governance and the Information Systems Audit and Control Association. It lists five principles to be used by the business for better communication on how to meet organizational goals:
- meeting stakeholder needs
- covering the enterprise end to end
- applying a single integrated framework
- enabling a holistic approach
- separating governance from management
eTOM and FRAMEWORX
eTOM is a business process framework for service-focused organizations. FRAMEWORX provides standards and best practices. It also provides standard metrics used by the communication industry.
Federal Enterprise Architecture Service Reference Model
The Federal Enterprise Architecture Service Reference Model is a standard developed by the U.S. government.
The Information Technology Infrastructure Library, or ITIL®, supports IT service management or IT operations. It focuses on customer needs and IT requirements through to the optimization of the service.
The Process Classification Framework, or PCF, supports aerospace, defense, automobile, electric utilities, pharmaceutical, and telecommunications. It helps these organizations to define processes without redundancies.
The Supply-chain operations reference, or SCOR, supports manufacturing in other organizations concerned with optimizing processes in their supply chain to improve inventory returns.
The Value Reference Model, or VRM, is a standard that enables value chain processes supporting human capital management, asset management, and performance management. It includes enterprise management, product development, supply chain integration, and customer relationship management using one reference model to support the vision of an integrated value chain.
Business architecture techniques
There are several techniques used by business architects:
- Archimate® is an open-standard modeling language used to describe, visualize and analyze business domains.
- The Business Motivation Model, or BMM, is a standard to define business plans, which includes the mission, vision, strategies, tactics, goals, objectives, policies, rules and influencers.
- Service-oriented analysis uses models to analyze, design and architect systems and software to provide a holistic view of the IT infrastructure of the organization. It defines the analysis scope, identifies automation systems, and model services.
- The Open Group Architecture Framework, or TOGAF®, is an international standard for designing, planning, implementing and governing an enterprise information technology architecture.
- The Zachman framework is an enterprise architecture framework that views the organization at five levels. It starts at the top, at the contextual level. It then goes to the conceptual level, logical, then physical, and finally to a detailed level. It asks several questions at each level:
There are various maps used in business architecture:
- Organizational maps – These describe the roles, responsibility and reporting structures. These maps can be functionally oriented or mapped based on market segments. A matrix illustrates each functional area and each product, service, or customer group.
- Customer journey maps – These outline the customer’s experience from initial contact with the organization until there is a consistent interaction with the organization. It can be used by product managers, executives, and management to understand what motivates a customer to interact with the organization.